Research and Publications

1. Development of an agricultural sensor hub for dynamic data assimilation of real-time irrigation control (2022)

Real-time soil moisture monitoring in the root-zone depth is essential for effective irrigation control. Water wastage can be reduced by considering plants’ needs and not just watering considering only the volumetric water content of the soil. Therefore, a soil moisture monitoring instrument based on crop needs with real-time and self–powering functionality that can meet the farmer’s needs at a considerable cost is required. An Agrotronic instrument was developed and calibrated using the reading taken with the water sensor in air and water, giving a direct measurement of volumetric soil moisture content. According to the laboratory results, the sensor was effectively calibrated with a double reciprocal mathematical model, between oven-dry and field capacity states of the soil particle. The accuracy of the Agrotropic sensor was ±0.09%VWC for the tested soil samples. The efficiency improves as the moisture content increases in the soil. A fully functional IoT system was developed to publish the real-time measurements.

Agrotronic sensor Hub

Testing and comparing Agrotronic instruments in the Lab with a commercial sensor

Keywords: Agrotronic instrument, dynamic data assimilation, real-time decisions, and variable rate irrigation.

2. Sensitivity analysis and comparison of infiltration models in southern guinea savannah zone of Nigeria (2022)

This study aimed to compare the performance of three models for infiltration rate prediction for soils of Nigeria’s southern guinea savannah zone. The study area focused on 6 locations in Minna. Five infiltration rate tests were conducted for each site to investigate the soil infiltration characteristics of urban soil and its influencing factors. The results showed that the steady infiltration rates of urban soil were highly variable. High variations in the final infiltration rates were seen for different vegetation patterns and compaction degrees (22.02, 17.06, 13.45 cm hr-1 ). Land with shrubs and grasses had the highest infiltration rate, while the bare land had the lowest rate of 7.14 cmhr-1. Three infiltration models were applied (Horton, Kostiakov and Philip), and their performances were evaluated based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The Philip model with the least RMSE values of 0.79 cm hr-1 and R2 of 0.97 most closely predicted the measured infiltration. On the other hand, Kostiakov’s and Horton’s model provided less exact estimates of the measured infiltration with least RMSE values of 4.63 and 5.13cm hr-1and R2 of 0.92 and 0.91, respectively. Improper techniques to minimise and mitigate soil compaction should increase urban soil infiltration rate and water storage volume. In conclusion, these findings can supply helpful information for urban planners about maximising the water volume of urban soil and decreasing instantaneous urban flooding.

Keywords: infiltration rates, sensitivity analysis, Horton model, Kostiakov model, Philip model

3. Effect of long-term tillage practice and cropping on physicochemical properties of soils in southern guinea savannah area of Nigeria (2022)

Agriculture is the bravado of most developing countries like Nigeria; thus, it is the key point for the existence of those living in the country. This is study is aimed at the effect of long-term tillage practice and cropping on physicochemical properties of soils in Southern guinea savannah area of Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from a continuously cropped rice field using the random uniform grid method at depths between 0 – 15 cm, 15 – 25 cm, 25 – 50 cm and 50 – 75 cm. Samples were collected in five replicates, mixed and homogenized. Soil samples collected at the 0 – 15 cm, 25 – 50 cm depth was Sandy clay loam while those of 15 – 25 cm and 50 – 75 cm depths are sandy clay and sandy loam. The soil hydraulic conductivity for the zone of 25 to 50 cm had values ranging between 0.23 and 1.51 cm/hr. while the fourth zone considered had values ranging between 0.49 and 0.77 cm/hr. It was concluded that the farmers should conduct physical and chemical analysis of the soils they wish to carryout farming activities to decide the type of fertilizer to be used.

Keywords: Agriculture, cropping, chemical properties, land use, physical properties. 

4. Heavy metals in agricultural soils in Nigeria: a review (2017)

This review paper presents the health risks of heavy metals such as: lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and arsenic (As) etc contamination in soils. The review reveals the major sources of these metals which are urban and industrial effluents, deterioration of sewage pipe, treatment water works, sewage sludge, fertilizers and pesticides. It also reveals the adopted standard for drinking water (maximum tolerable limit) by FAO, JECFA and WHO which are as follows: 0.05mg/L, 0.05mg/L, 1.5mg/L, 0.001mg/L, 0.02mg/L, 15mg/L, 0.3mg/L, 0.5mg/L, 0.01mg/L, 0.05mg/L and 0.05mg/Lfor Pb, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, Se, As and Cd respectively. The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils is of increasing concern because of food safety issues, potential health risks such as neurological disorder, cancer, kidney damage, fragile bone etc and their detrimental effects on soil ecosystem. However, the regular monitoring of levels of these metals from dump sites, effluents and sewages in soil and drinking water is essential to prevent excessive buildup of these metals thereby increasing toxicity and elevating the public health risk.

Keywords: Environment, Heavy metals, Health risk, Soils, Toxicity. 

5. In Preparation (2023)

Currently working on research articles focusing on UAV data assimilation into yield prediction and crop health monitoring on oat and corn. One of the targeted journals is Drones (Switzerland) ( with a research group including Dr Attila Nagy, Dr Zsolt Zoltán Fehér Dr Erika Buday-Bódi, Dr András Tamás and others in University of Debrecen.  

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